REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra <h4><span style="float: right; color: #111111; font-family: 'helvetica neue',helvetica,arial,verdana,sans-serif; font-size: 14.4px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 18.72px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; display: inline ! important; background-color: #ffffff;">ISSN Electrónico 2395 - 8030.</span></h4> The Mexican Society of Soil Science en-US REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2395-8030 Editorial Committee 38-3 https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/823 Rosa María López-Atilano Copyright (c) 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 38 3 Index 38-3 https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/822 Rosa María López-Atilano Copyright (c) 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 38 3 Promoter of conservation tillage and erosion control: Life and work of Dr. Benjamín Figueroa Sandoval https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/819 <p>The Mexican Soil Science Society, C.A. (MSSS), gives a deep of post-mortem recognition to Dr. Benjamín Figueroa Sandoval, one of its most distinguished and active members. Dr. Figueroa Sandoval was born on April 30, 1949 in Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, and died on February 21, 2020 in Salinas de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, México. His scientific work included the areas of research: sustainable agriculture, conservation tillage and soil physics. In addition to being an excellent soil scientist, he had among his hobbies the sport, being a football fan and basketball player, as well as reading and music. Dr. Figueroa Sandoval served as General Director of the Colegio de Postgraduados for two consecutive periods, from 1999 to 2003 and from 2004 to 2007. Much of his scientific legacy is embodied in the records of MSSS, CA.</p> David Espinosa-Victoria Oscar Luis Figueroa-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 38 3 457 463 10.28940/terra.v38i3.819 Chemical and biological properties of soils in milpa interlaced with fruit trees https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/599 <p>The agricultural management of the soil in zones of hillside of the rain forest of Mexico, determines erosion and changes on physical and biological soil properties. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical and biological characteristics, in the milpa intercropped system in fruit trees (MIAF) and compare this with traditional agricultural and conservation tillage systems. The soils of the donor and recipient parts of the MIAF, of the traditional milpa and of the manageable with conservation tillage, are sampled; the chemical and biological characteristics in the soils of Axochío, San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz. The results indicate that the MIAF system improves groups of microorganisms, in addition to a pH closer to neutrality, higher content of organic matter, inorganic N, total N, total P, extractables P and K in f ilter zone.</p> Ana Magdalena Arriaga-Vázquez Mario Roberto Martínez-Menez Juan Enrique Rubiños-Panta Demetrio Salvador Fernández-Reynoso Julián Delgadillo-Martínez Antonio Vázquez-Alarcón Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 38 3 465 474 10.28940/terra.v38i3.599 Effect of organic matter and cation exchange capacity on the acidity of soils cultured with corn in two regions of Chiapas, Mexico https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/506 <p>One third of the world’s soils are acidic, under these conditions many crops are affected, especially when aluminum concentrations reach toxic levels. In order to establish the relationships between acidity indicators and cation exchange capacity, and pH and organic matter content, 13 sites were selected in Frailesca and Valles Zoque regions. Five sub-samples were collected at a depth of 0.30 m, in order to form a homogeneous sample per experimental site. Determination of pH, interchangeable cations, cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, and aluminium (Al3+) and hydrogen (H+) saturation was performed. The saturation percentage of Al3+ was exponentially correlated with increases in CIC, pH and calcium (Ca2+) saturation %; however, in regard to organic matter, Al3+ saturation adjusted significantly to a second order polynomial model, indicating a maximum saturation at values of 4.14% of organic matter. The percentage of H+ saturation adjusted negatively to an exponential function, decreasing at organic matter values higher than 2%. It is concluded that in the soils of Frailesca region, there is an acidification process that could lead to toxic increases of aluminum for corn culture, especially at pH values lower than five.</p> Wel Olveín Cruz-Macías Luis Alfredo Rodríguez-Larramendi Miguel Ángel Salas-Marina Vidal Hernández-García Rady Alejandra Campos-Saldaña Moisés Hussein Chávez-Hernández Alder Gordillo-Curiel Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 38 3 475 480 10.28940/terra.v38i3.506 Effect of the addition of leachate and sulfur in the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in germinated corn sprouts https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/697 <p>Germinated maize sprouts were fertilized with vermicompost leachate and sulfur to analyze the effect of these compounds over the phytochemical quality in regard to total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content (FNL), flavonoid (FVL) and antioxidant capacity (AOX) of sprouts were determined by comparing three treatments (leachate, sulfur, leachate-sulfur) as source of nutrients and a control (water). The results showed an increase in the concentration of the variables evaluated in the three treatments studied. The leachate-sulfur combination presented the highest values for FNL, FVL and AOX, with average values of 9123 mg g-1 PS, 6.63 mg g-1 PS, 6088 μmol TE/100 g‑1 PS, (70, 64, and 61% higher than control), respectively. These findings show that the nutritional value and functional properties of germinated maize sprouts can increase by the addition of sulfur and vermicompost leachate.</p> Cirilo Vázquez-Vázquez Victoria Jared Borroel-García Barbara Yahaira Espino-Paredes Fátima Noemí Santa María-Hinojosa José Luis García-Hernández Mercedes Georgina Ramírez-Aragón Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 38 3 481 487 10.28940/terra.v38i3.697 Influence of Ca2+, pH, agar and plant growth regulators in the in vitro propagation of Echinocactus parryi (Engelm) https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/734 <p>Echinocactus parryi is a threatened and endemic species of the municipality of Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico that presents important limitations for its propagation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth regulators, calcium concentration (Ca2+), environmental pH and gelling concentration in the morphogenetic response of E. parryi. The seeds were germinated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at 25% of the concentration of their salts (¼ MS). Epicotyls were cultured in an inverted position in media with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (0-10 mg L-1), indole-3-acetic acid (AIA) (0-0.5 mg L-1), pH 5.7 and 8, Ca2+ (13.2 µM and 26.4 µM) and agar (7 and 10 g L-1). The highest sprout formation (2.9 sprouts per explant) was obtained in MS medium with 2 mg L-1 of BAP combined with 0.5 mg L-1 of AIA, 13.2 µM of Ca2+, pH 8, and 7 g L-1 of agar, at 120 days of culture. The sprouts were transferred to MS medium with 2,3,5 tri‑iodobenzoic acid (TIBA) (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg L-1) to induce root formation. The highest rooting (70.5%) was obtained in medium with 0.5 mg L-1 of TIBA. The survival of the plants was 58% at 5 months. This is the first report that describes the in vitro regeneration of E. parryi and constitutes an important advance for its propagation and conservation.</p> Dolores Adilene García-González María Del Socorro Santos-Diaz Juan Pedro Flores-Margez Pedro Osuna-Ávila Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 38 3 489 498 10.28940/terra.v38i3.734 Using digital images to evaluate the colorimetric response of lisianthus plants to nutrient solutions in hydroponic systems https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/549 <p>Lisianthus is an ornamental plant that has recently acquired great importance in national and international markets for its beauty and color variety. This crop is traditionally established in soil, but little information is known regarding its growth and development habits in hydroponic systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate through digital images the change in leaf and flower colors in lisianthus cultivation in hydroponics with different nutrition solutions. Four nutrition solutions (NS) were tested in the cultivation stage: (NS1) Steiner solution as control group and the rest of the treatments were modified solutions; (NS2) double concentration of Steiner solution; (NS3) a high amount of K was added; and (NS4) higher amount of calcium (18 mEq L-1). The parameters evaluated were plant height and leaf number, obtaining significant differences in both NS1 with respect to the NS4 leaf and flower phenotypic characteristics by the intensity of red, blue, and green (RGB) color model values; leaf was not affected by the treatments with modifications made to the Steiner solution. The variable R only showed significant differences in NS1 compared to NS4 with a higher amount of calcium, but it did not occur for the other variables. This phenomenon only occurred on day 61 after transplant (DAT). Regarding the effect of the nutrient solution on flower color, a significant difference was found in the R variables in Steiner solution (NS1). A difference was also observed in the solution with high potassium concentrations. The same occurred for the artificial variables used.</p> Daniela Rodríguez-Serrano Francisco Marcelo Lara-Viveros Susana Graciela Sánchez-Herrera Graciano Javier Aguado-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 38 3 499 506 10.28940/terra.v38i3.549 Grain yield and population densities of new corn hybrids released by the INIFAP and UNAM for the High Valleys of Mexico† https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/557 <p>In Mexico, corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereals from the alimentary, industrial, social, political, and cultural points of view. It is grown in different agroecological niches, water regimes, and management systems. The objective of the present research work was to study the optimum plant density per area unit and its effect on grain yield and agronomical characteristics of different corn hybrids. Six corn hybrids (H-51 AE, H 53 AE, H 47 AE, H 49 AE, Tsíri PUMA, and H-48) and three plant densities (50 000, 65 000, and 80 000 plants ha-1) were evaluated. Sowing was done during the spring-summer season, 2015, in field owned by the FESC-UNAM and CEVAMEX-INIFAP. A completely randomized block design was used with four replicates. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were detected for genotypes (G) in the variables of grain yield, plant height, ear height, days to male and female flowering, volumetric weight, grain weight, ear length, and grains per ear. Moreover, the effect of the environment (E) was significant (P ≤ 0.05) for the same variables, with the exception of ear length. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) were registered for the densities factor (D). Only the G×E interaction had significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in the grain yield trait. The better environment was CEVAMEX, with a mean yield of 5497 kg ha-1. The Tsíri PUMA hybrid had the best grain yield with 5856 kg ha-1. Although there were no differences for the studied interactions, the 65 000 plants ha-1 population density was the most appropriate. The densities factor did not affect the performance of the evaluated hybrids. Therefore, we recommend using 65 000 plants ha-1 to avoid investing in large amounts of seeds.</p> Margarita Tadeo-Robledo Alejandro Espinosa-Calderón Enrique Canales-Islas Consuelo López-López Benjamín Zamudio-González Antonio Turrent-Fernández Noel Gómez-Montiel Mauro Sierra-Macías Aarón Martínez-Gutiérrez Roberto Valdivia-Bernal Pablo Andrés-Meza Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 38 3 507 515 10.28940/terra.v38i3.557 Citrange troyer growth and chemical-microbiological attributes of the soil in response to different organic fertilizers https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/602 <p>Citrus production depends principally on the healthiest, appropriate and vigorous rootstock available; part of its reproduction is associated with the use of chemical fertilizers, that contribute to ecosystem contamination. Uses of organic fertilizers are alternatives to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three organic fertilizers (chicken manure, sugarcane residue (1 and 2), and banana waste) supplied in three doses (1, 2 and 3%), in chemical and microbiological soil properties and in Citrange troyer rootstock growth in greenhouse. A complete randomized design was used with 14 treatments and six replicates each, including two control groups (absolute and fertilized). Serial dilutions in specific media were used to quantify Azospirillum, Azotobacter, phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were evaluated according to the clearing and dyeing technique with trypan blue. Soil pH increased 0.9 units when adding 1% sugarcane residue-2; while organic carbon increased 0.7% with chicken manure 1%; Azospirillum, Azotobacter and phosphate solubilizing bacteria increased in the treatments supplied with sugarcane residue-1 1% and chicken manure 1%. The cachaza-1 2% induced greater mycorrhizal colonization and increased plant growth. Nine of twelve treatments with the organic fertilizers used, positively modif ied soil chemical and microbiological properties, resulting in a better growth of Citrange troyer compared with the control groups.</p> María del Carmen Rivera-Cruz Apolinar González-Mancilla Juan José Almaraz-Suárez Carlos Fredy Ortiz-García Antonio Trujillo Narcía Patricia Vázquez-López Gonzalo Cruz-Navarro Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 38 3 519 528 10.28940/terra.v38i3.602 Physical and chemical properties of the urban soil in the San Juan de Aragon Park, Mexico City https://www.terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/644 <p>In view of the lack of studies on urban soils in Mexico, this paper evaluated eight physical and chemical properties used by the Soil Condition Indicator of the FIA (Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program, United States), to determine the quality of the soils and its role in the developmentof tree species present in the San Juan de Aragon Park. The properties evaluated and analyzed in horizontal and vertical terms were: pH, electrical conductivity, salt content, texture, bulk density, and percentages of organic matter, organic carbon and porous space. 96&nbsp;soil samples were collected over 28 sampling sites of 0.1&nbsp;ha, at three depths, 0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm. The average soil pH was 7.2; electrical conductivity, 0.51 dS m-1; bulk density, 1.02 g cm-3; porous space, 61.84%; total dissolved salts, 327.20 mg L-1; organic matter, 3.6% and organic carbon, 2.63%, as well as a frank textural class. The soils of the study area presented vertical variability for apparent density, porous space, organic matter, organic carbon, electrical conductivity, and soluble salts, and were relatively homogeneous horizontally. Except for organic matter, the rest of the properties presented acceptable values for good development of the tree species present. The measurement of the evaluated properties, allowed to obtain a real panorama about the ability of this urban land to function, which is adequate to support the development of woody species.</p> Luz de Lourdes Saavedra-Romero Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales Tomás Martínez-Trinidad Patricia Hernández-de la Rosa Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 38 3 529 540 10.28940/terra.v38i3.644