REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA <h4><span style="float: right; color: #111111; font-family: 'helvetica neue',helvetica,arial,verdana,sans-serif; font-size: 14.4px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 18.72px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; display: inline ! important; background-color: #ffffff;">ISSN Electrónico 2395 - 8030.</span></h4> en-US (Dr. Bernardo Murillo Amador) (Cristopher Escalera de la Rosa) Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Influence of biocrusts on the CO2 flux in the microphyllous desert shrubland of the Mexican plateau <p>Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the soil is produced by mineralization of organic matter and by respiration of soil organisms. Biocrusts contribute to this f lux and is a key factor for the functioning of arid and semi‑arid ecosystems. This research was conducted in an area of microphyllous desert shrubland in northeastern Mexico. Four microenvironments were selected: open area without biocrusts (Aa), open area with biocrusts (AaC), under plant without biocrusts (Bp) and under plant with biocrusts (BpC). The biocrusts were mainly constituted by lichens and cyanobacteria. The following hypotheses were tested: i) biocrusts contribute to soil respiration in these areas to a greater extent than vascular plants; ii) soil respiration is higher in biocrusts microenvironments than in open areas without biocrusts; iii) soil respiration rates increase as soil temperature increases, regardless of the presence/&nbsp;absence of biocrusts. Soil respiration was measured in situ using an EGM-4 equipment with a closed soil respiration chamber. Data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. The relationship between temperature and soil respiration rate was evaluated with a Spearman correlation analysis. Statistical analyzes were performed in the SPSS® Statistics version 19 software. The results showed that the average respiration rate was higher in soil with biocrusts than in soils lacking biocrusts, with 3.03 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Respiration rates dif fered between microsites. AaC, BpC and Bp microenvironments reached equal respiration rates among them and were overall higher than the soil respiration rates in Aa, except for Bp, which showed similar values. The results also showed a positive relationship between soil respiration and temperature for all microenvironments. We conclude that the respiration rates were higher in areas with biocrust coverage ≥ 40%, compared with soil without biocrusts, both in the presence and absence of vascular plants.</p> Maritza Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Dinorah O. Mendoza-Aguilar, Marisela Pando-Moreno, Humberto González-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Sat, 04 Jun 2022 01:02:22 +0000 Mexican experience in the implementation of the RothC-26.3 model of the dynamics of organic carbon in soils: scope and limitations <p>The use of models of the dynamics of organic carbon in soils has been emphasized for the implementation of different public programs, including greenhouse gas inventories. The RothC 26.3 model (RothC) is one of the most used worldwide in the study of C dynamics. The objective of this study was to make a synthesis of the performance of the RothC model in predicting changes in SOC in plots, sites, systems and regions. As well as application in scenarios of land use change (LUC) and cropping systems using short-term (&lt;20 years) databases and over a 40-year time period. In the plots the average initial SOCL (SOCinitial) was used by plot (CIPLOT) and SOCinitial at each sampling point (CIPT). The systems evaluated were agricultural, forestry, prairie and pasture. In the regions, the IPCC method was used and the RothC model method was used with partial information from the IPCC method. The simulation scenarios tested included LUC from traditional tillage to (i) agroforestry systems with castor, (ii) plantations of tropical tree species, and (iii) conservation tillage. LUC scenarios from secondary vegetation to tillage systems and scenarios with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) crops were also tested. The results of the RothC model performance showed slightly better fit of the predictions when using CIPT, difficulty in modeling pastures and some tillage systems, and a high correlation between the methods used at the regional scale. Regarding the tested scenarios, the obtained trends and rates of SOC change coincided with estimations of other studies. In Mexico, it is necessary to consider the scope of the RothC model estimations of SOC changes based on its performance at different geographic scales, in different cropping systems and in different vegetation types.</p> Lucila González-Molina, Fernando Carrillo-Anzures, Miguel Acosta-Mireles, Aurelio Báez-Pérez, Eduardo Espitia-Rangel, Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra, Fernando Paz-Pellat Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 18 Apr 2022 17:48:38 +0000 Soil formation from tepetates: structural unities, organic carbon, and structural stability <p>The formation of soils from hardened layers of volcanic origin -tepetates- broken, depends on the management system that is used to enable it to be implemented for agricultural or livestock use, so the development of models that allow understanding the transformation of structural units, from fragments to aggregates, is of great importance. From this perspective, the present work proposes and justifies the use of a kinetic model of order n, to model the distribution of mass and organic carbon in the structural units of tepetates under cultivation and predict their evolution towards soil formation. The validation of the model and the proposed relationships were carried out from the comparison of the dynamics of structuring in tepetate, with different case studies, which include substrates with different characteristics, such as soils, degraded soil and loamy marl. The modeling results were highly favorable (R2 &gt; 0.98). The temporal evolution of the cementing agent in the substrates -organic carbon- as well as structural stability, according to the proposed model define patterns that are directly associated with the evolution of soil formation with the level of aggregation. In short-term experiments (≤ 2 years), the analyses highlight the participation of other agents, in addition to organic carbon, that control the mechanisms of aggregation, so an extension of the proposed model was reviewed, to consider this scenario.</p> Alma S. Velázquez-Rodríguez, Aurelio Báez-Pérez, Claudia Hidalgo-Moreno, Mayra Parsa-Retana, Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra, Fernando Paz-Pellat Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 18 Apr 2022 17:36:01 +0000 Patterns of the distribution of organic carbon by fractions of primary soil particles <p>In order to analyze the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) associated with changes in land use / vegetation and management practices, it is necessary to develop models that can be used predictively. A modeling approach is the distribution of SOC by physical fractions of the primary organomineral complexes (clays, silts and sands), using ultrasound soil dispersion techniques, where it is necessary to optimize the sonication energies to achieve complete soil dispersion. Under this consideration of complete dispersion, the COLPOS model and its hypothesis are discussed, as well as its possible extensions when considering the masses and enrichments of the physical fractions of the soil, in addition to the analysis of the relationships between these fractions. To analyze the patterns associated with the COLPOS model and its extensions, the available Mexican soil fractionations using ultrasound are analyzed, in addition to three databases of similar fractionations published in the literature. The results show that the COLPOS model can be parameterized according to the size and mass of the soil particles; although for the case of the masses some results are inconsistent. From the analysis of the organic carbon ratios between fractions for two different kinetics, the relationships show greater dispersion than for the case of only kinetic fractions.</p> Fernando Paz-Pellat, Sara Covaleda, Claudia Hidalgo-Moreno, Francisco Matus, Aurelio Báez, Alma S. Velázquez-Rodríguez, Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 18 Apr 2022 17:19:00 +0000 Soil organic carbon depth distribution patterns in different land uses and management <p>The distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) at depth is important to define carbon stocks and for analyzing the impacts of different destabilization mechanisms and processes. The modeling of the vertical distribution of the SOC has been approximated by empirical approaches or using first order kinetic models with multi-compartments. This paper introduces a kinetic model of n order, which generalizes previous developments of use of a single compartment. The model is adjusted to soil profiles of the Hillside Sustainable Management Project in the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca, Mexico, in three microbasins of the Mazateca, Cuicateca and Mixe regions. Sampling protocols, experimental design, systems and laboratory are presented. The kinetic model of n order was adjusted well to the experimental data (R2 &gt; 0.99), although high variability (horizontal and vertical) was found, which was discussed as a possible relationship with the position of the field sampling points.</p> Miguel Acosta-Mireles, Fernando Paz-Pellat, Claudia Hidalgo-Moreno, Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 18 Apr 2022 17:10:52 +0000 Parameterization of the dynamics of the COLPOS model through chronosequences of land use and vegetation change <p>The modeling of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics is a critical step to analyze CO2 emissions projections associated with changes in land use and vegetation (USyV). The COLPOS model was developed to estimate the distribution of SOC associated with physical soil fractions, but it was not extended to a dynamic version. This paper presents the development of the dynamic COLPOS model, generated from a review of the solutions of the ordinary differential equations of the SOC dynamics models with two stocks, one active and the other inert. With the use of chronosequences of USyV changes, where the decomposition and absorption processes of COS were separated by using techniques that use a stable isotope (13C), an adjustment of the developed model was carried out, obtaining satisfactory results (R2 &gt; 0.9). The COLPOS dynamic model only has one adjustment parameter and was formulated based on measurable laboratory data, so its operational use is viable.</p> Fernando Paz-Pellat, Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 18 Apr 2022 16:19:00 +0000 Soil organic carbon for different depths in a sequence of disturbance and reference sites <p>Soil organic carbon (SOC) at depth can be destabilized by various climatic or anthropogenic factors, so it is necessary to characterize it properly. The modeling of the vertical distribution of the SOC has generally been approximated using empirical approaches to mathematical model adjustments. This scheme is used to characterize the SOC at depth in different land uses and it is analyzed, but with an incremental approach of introducing constraints in the experimental adjustment, by nonlinear regression. The boundary conditions introduced (for zero and infinity depth) allow parameterizing models with physicochemical and biological sense. The best models selected in the progressive adjustment process were reviewed to analyze the congruence of their parameters, arguing that their bases are not clear to characterize the dynamics of the SOC. As an alternative, a reaction kinetics of variable order n was introduced in the experimental settings, obtaining good results (R2 &gt; 0.99) and clear patterns in the relationships between order n and the kn reaction rate of the alternative model.</p> Edgar Barrales-Brito, Fernando Paz Pellat, Alma S. Velázquez-Rodríguez, Claudia Hidalgo-Moreno, Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 18 Apr 2022 16:12:02 +0000 Silicon and chlorine on growth, yield and postharvest quality of cucumber and tomato <p>An increase in photosynthetic capacity, a decrease in transpiration rate, greater growth of plants and increase in yields and quality of crops are effects caused by silicon (Si) and chlorine (Cl). These beneficial effects caused by both elements depend on species and genotypes within a species. Therefore, the objective of the research was to determine the effect of silicon and chlorine, individually or in combination, as well as which are the most effective doses in growth, yield and postharvest quality of cucumber and tomato. The cultivars ‘Paraíso F1’ and ‘tomate F3’ were sown, watered every 24 h and fertilized with 200 kg ha-1 of N and 2 L ha-1 of Micro-Min foliar (20-30-10) on the 36th and 56th day after planting. In both experiments, a randomized complete block design was established, managed in drip irrigation. Treatments consisted of 20, 30 and 50 mg L-1 of Si or Cl and combinations of 20:20 and 30:30 mg L-1 of Si:Cl, plus the control. The highest dose of Si and the three doses of Cl or two of Si:Cl were more effective to induce growth in cucumber, although in regard to yield, the most suitable were the two highest doses of Si and the three of Cl. In tomato, the lowest dose of Cl induced a slight increase in leaf greenness, the two nutrients decreased height, and the highest dose of Si:Cl was more effective to slightly increase the leaf area, however, the yield did not increase. With regards to total soluble solids, the highest dose of Cl and the lowest combination of Si:Cl caused a better response in cucumber; however, in tomato only the lowest dose of Cl caused the highest response.</p> Luz Llarely Cázarez-Flores, Leopoldo Partida-Ruvalcaba, Teresa de Jesús Velázquez-Alcaraz, Felipe Ayala-Tafoya, Tomás Díaz-Valdés, Moisés Gilberto Yáñez-Juárez, Carlos Alfonso López-Orona Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Wed, 13 Apr 2022 19:06:10 +0000 Growth, yield, and profitability of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) fertilized with chemical and biological sources <p>Zucchini is a vegetable of great agricultural and social relevance in Mexico, hence, the implementation of alternatives such as the use of products of biological origin, can contribute to the improvement and increase of profits in this crop. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chemical and biological fertilization on the growth, yield, and profitability of the zucchini crop. The study was established under irrigation in Tlayacapan, Morelos, Mexico, where seedlings of Italian zucchini variety Adelita were transplanted. The treatments consisted of the application of seaweed extract [Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis] and Rhizophagus irregularis (Błaszk., Wubet, Renker &amp; Buscot) C. Walker &amp; A. Schüßler (2010) to the soil mixed with chemical fertilizers. A random complete block design with four repetitions was used. To evaluate crop growth and leaf area dry matter per plant was recorded, with which the growth rate of the crop, absolute growth rate, crop yield, weight, diameter, and length of the fruit were determined. In addition, an economic analysis was performed to determine the profitability of each treatment. Overall, it was observed that the application of 100% chemical fertilization promoted the largest leaf area, fresh plant weight, dry matter, absolute growth rate, crop growth rate, yield, and fruit weight in zucchini cultivation, which caused improved profitability. Fertilization with seaweed complemented chemical fertilization and generated a better response in the variables evaluated compared to R. irregularis.</p> Cid Aguilar-Carpio, Yessica Flor Cervantes-Adame, Pedro Jordan Sorza-Aguilar, José Alberto Salvador Escalante-Estrada Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Wed, 13 Apr 2022 15:55:26 +0000 Soil straw incorporation, seed zinc inoculation and nitrogen fertilization on wheat grown under soil saline conditions <p>In regions with soil salinity problems, continuous improvement of physical and chemical soil properties, seed germination improvement, as well as efficient fertilization management should aid in increasing crop yield. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the effects of soil straw incorporation (SI) (0 and 5000 kg ha‑1), seed with zinc (Zn) inoculation (0 and 100 mg kg‑1 of Zn), and nitrogen (N) fertilization (0, 115, 230 and 460 kg ha-1) on wheat grown under saline soil conditions. The crop was established during the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 winter-spring growing seasons. The experimental design was a three-way factorial treatment arranged under a completely randomized block design with four replicates. The response variables measured were growth, crop nutrition, and yield, as well as soil residual effects of treatments. The N × SI interaction affected the growth, nitrates on cellular extract of stem, and yield of wheat. Rate of 460 kg N ha-1 produced the highest number of spikes m-2 and 115 kg N ha-1 the highest grain weight. Harvest index was higher with SI but decreased when the seed was inoculated with Zn. Soil salinity reduced with SI, whereas Zn × SI interaction modified soil pH, nitrates, phosphates, and soil organic matter. The organic matter in soil was affected by N × SI interaction. In conclusion, crop productivity was improved by SI because essential soil properties were modified by Zn seed inoculation, which increased crop growth and N maximized wheat yield.</p> Fidel Núñez-Ramírez, Raúl Leonel Grijalva-Contreras, Rubén Macías-Duarte, Blancka Yesenia Samaniego-Gámez, Isabel Escobosa-García, Onécimo Grimaldo-Juárez, Ángel Manuel Suarez-Hernández Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Wed, 13 Apr 2022 15:46:24 +0000 Soil CO2 efflux fluctuates in three different annual seasons in a semideciduous tropical forest in Yucatan, Mexico <p>Tropical forest soils store a third of the global terrestrial carbon and control carbon dioxide (CO2) terrestrial effluxes to the atmosphere produced by root and microbial respiration. Soil CO2 efflux varies in time and space and is known to be strongly influenced by soil temperature and water content. However, little is known about the influence of seasonality on soil CO2 efflux, especially in tropical dry forests. This study evaluated soil CO2 efflux, soil temperature, and soil volumetric water content in a semideciduous tropical forest of the Yucatan Peninsula under two sites (flat areas close to and far from hills), and three seasons: dry, wet, and early dry (a transition between the rainy and dry seasons) throughout a year. Additionally, six 24-h periods of soil CO2 efflux were measured within these three seasons. The mean annual soil CO2 efflux was 4±2.2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, like the mean soil CO2 efflux during the early dry season. In all seasons, soil CO2 efflux increased linearly with soil moisture, which explained 45% of the spatial-temporal variation of soil CO2 efflux. Soil CO2 efflux was higher close to than far from hills in some months. The daily variation of soil CO2 efflux was less important than its spatial and seasonal variation likely due to small diel variations in temperature. Transition seasons are common in many tropical dry forests, and they should be taken into consideration to have a better understanding of the annual soil CO2 efflux, especially under future climate-change scenarios.</p> Fernando Arellano-Martín, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Roberth Us-Santamaría, José Luis Andrade Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Fri, 01 Apr 2022 17:51:53 +0000 Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and organics substrates effect on bean plant morphology and minerals <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate symbionts that require a host plant (tramp) and support (substrates) to be applied as bio-fertilizers in agriculture. The objective of this study is to assess eight native AMF consortia of semi-arid zones (C1-ART, C2-GEC, C3-PAR, C4-VIE, C5-CUC, C6-SAC, C7-SAB, and C8-MUZ) and their reproduction response in three organic substrates: coffee pulp (CP), bovine manure (BM) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) on bean Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, root length, fresh and dry biomass, and mineral content in root were measured. The organic substrates (CP and BM) and C5-CUC and C8-MUZ consortia increased plant height, root length, and total fresh and dry biomass considerably. After day 75 of inoculation, root colonization oscillated from 5.7% in C8-MUZ to 46.1% in C2-GEC and C4-VIE; the greatest number of spores (201) was obtained in CP substrate in a 100-g sample. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn contents in root and leaves were signif icantly high (P ≤ 0.001). To conclude, native AMF inoculation and substrates had positive effects on biomass content and nutrient levels in leaf and root with the C2-GEC and C3-PAR consortia and CP and BM substrates, which produced better effects in beans, making them a biofertilization alternative in agricultural crops.</p> José Rafael Paredes-Jácome, Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel, Valentin Robledo-Torres, José Antonio González-Fuentes, Roberto Gregorio Chiquito-Contreras, Rosalinda Mendoza-Villarreal Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Fri, 01 Apr 2022 17:40:26 +0000 Influence of three irrigation regimes on agronomic quality of cultivated rye in the coast of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico <p>Cereals are a fundamental part of the world diet; therefore, their adaptation in different environments due to climate change should be achieved. Studying the modif ications that may occur during plant development is essential, as well as in the quality of the harvested product. Thus the objective of this research is to analyze the effect of water stress on development, growth, production, and agronomic quality of rye crop and harvested grain. For sowing, a completely randomized one-way experimental design was used, where the treatments consisted of three different soil moisture regimes. The variables evaluated at the time of harvest were plant height and number of spikes per linear meter. After harvest, the variables evaluated were spike size and the number of grains it contained, as well as size and color of the grain, weight of 1000 grains, test weight, yield, ash and protein content. An analysis of variance and Tukey’s comparison of means test (P &lt; 0.05) were performed for ash and protein content, and Duncan (P &lt; 0.05 and P ≤ 0.0001) for the rest of the determinations. The results showed that less irrigation did not negatively affect the crop with an appropriate agronomic development, highlighting an increase in the number and size of spikes, an increase in the number of grains per spike, as well as a high yield and protein content of the grain. These values were higher than those reported in previous research, which conf irms that even though rye is considered a winter cereal, it managed to acclimate to soil conditions, decreased water, and high temperatures in the coastal area of Hermosillo, Sonora, México.</p> Lorena Carolina Sosa-Yáñez, José Luis García-Hernández, Francisco Rodríguez-Félix, Luis Arturo Bello-Pérez, Juscelino Tovar, Juan Pedro López-Córdova, Guadalupe Amanda López-Ahumada Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Fri, 04 Mar 2022 17:15:38 +0000 Chelate EDDHA to correct the iron deficiency in Italian lemon trees (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) <p>Citriculture is one of the most important productive activities in the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico. However, in most orchards the yields of these fruit trees are low and frequently of poor quality due to a low supply of iron and other micronutrients. The calcareous characteristics of the soils such as a moderately alkaline pH –around 8– and a calcium carbonate content higher than 40% induce the precipitation of iron in the form of oxides and hydroxides, causing low availability of Fe for the plant. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the FeEDDHA chelate applied to the soil. In our study we used 25-year-old Italian lemon trees (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) grafted on sour orange rootstocks, with visual symptoms of iron deficiency and severe and persistent yellowing of new leaves. The application of different concentrations of FeEDDHA chelate (50, 100 and 150 g tree-1) to the soil and the control treatment were evaluated. We applied FeEDDHA to the soil with the purpose of determining the most appropriate dose of the chelator to correct the iron deficiency in Italian lemon trees under calcareous soil conditions of the Central zone of the State. The application of the chelate to the soil in doses between 50 and 100 g tree‑1 of FeEDDHA increased the SPAD index in the leaves, corrected the Fe deficiency in the trees, and significantly increased the foliar concentration of Fe to an optimal level (77 mg kg-1 Fe), the fruit yield (40 Mg ha-1) and the economic income. In addition, the application of a higher dose, 150 g tree-1 of FeEDDHA, did not significantly increase iron assimilation and fruit production in Italian lemon trees.</p> Juan Valentín Puente-Ramírez, Patricio Rivera-Ortiz, José Hugo Silva-Espinosa, Elizabeth Andrade-Limas Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 01 Mar 2022 23:30:40 +0000 Biochar from sugarcane apices as a soil conditioner for greenhouse cultivation of Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora <p>The incorporation of biochar obtained from husks, stubble, forest residues, manures, among other residues into the soil can improve the growth of crops. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of sugarcane apice biochar (SAB) on the growth of thai basil (Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora) grown in a greenhouse. The treatments consisted of mixtures of biochar and sandy loam soil (v/v) at 0 (control), 7, 14, 21 and 28% concentrations. Plant height, fresh and dry matter, foliar area, SPAD units and the foliar nutrient concentration were evaluated. The use of 7% SAB increased the fresh matter (45.1%), dry matter (35.2%) and foliar area (54.5%). On the other hand, the 21% SAB treatment showed the highest foliar concentration of total-N (44.33 g kg-1), P (9.55 g kg‑1) and Ca (12.61 g kg-1). We conclude that sugarcane apice biochar can be incorporated into the soil as an alternative in the agronomic management of Thai basil.</p> Carlos Alberto Pérez-Cabrera, Porfirio Juárez-López, José Anzaldo-Hernández, Irán Alia-Tejacal, Luis Alonso Valdez-Aguilar, Gelacio Alejo-Santiago, Rogelio Castro-Brindis, Víctor López-Martínez, Daniela Alvarado-Camarillo Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 28 Feb 2022 15:15:40 +0000 Effect of applying nutritive solutions on bromatological quality of the hydroponic green forage of Avena sativa and Hordeum vulgare <p>Forage quality is important since it intervenes in aspects related to animal nutrition and productivity and in environmental effects such as methane generation (CH4). Forage quality is determined by a bromatological analysis, which measures variables such as: dry weight (DW), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ash. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of drinking water and two nutritional solutions with different nitrate/ammonium (NO3-/NH3+) ratios on fresh weight (FW) and bromatological quality of hydroponic green forage (HGF). Oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) were sampled at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after planting. The variables FW, DW, CP, NDF, ADF, and ash were measured. For the statistical analysis, a 3×2 factorial model (three nutritive solutions and two seed species) was used with repeated measurements over time and Tukey’s comparison of means (P ≤ 0.05). According to the analysis of variance (P ≤ 0.05) (i) time had significant effects on all the variables studied; (ii) nutrient solutions only affected CP; and (iii) the species used had an effect on CP, NDF, ADF and ash. Consistent with the comparison of means, (i) an increase in value of all variables was observed as sampling time progressed; (ii) CP percentage was higher with nutritive solutions than with drinking water, but no difference was observed between solutions; and (iii) hydroponically-grown (HGF) oats had higher CP, NDF, ADF and ash values. To conclude, HGF oats has better nutritional characteristics for livestock than HGF barley.</p> José Manuel Salvador-Castillo, Martín Alejandro Bolaños-González, Ana Karen Cedillo-Aviles, Yaneth Vázquez-Chena, Sergio Antonio Varela-de Gante, José Luis Meza-Discua Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Fri, 18 Feb 2022 23:05:08 +0000 Contingency analysis of natural distribution of Mexican pines in risk category <p>Studies on species natural distribution are necessary to determine the effect of social and environmental conditions on spatial distribution. The objectives of this research were to know the natural distribution of pine species considered at risk by Mexican laws and identify the possible association between these categories and socio-environmental factors (marginalization, soil degradation and forest productivity). For this purpose, a database was created on location and socioeconomic characteristics of the pines created from various sources. The independence between the risk categories of the pines and the socio-environmental factors was evaluated by means of a contingency analysis, which considers a chi-square statistics test. Of the 20 listed pine species, a total of 2480 records were obtained. Highly marginalized areas recorded 4.48%, high 26.21%, medium 18.47%, and low 50.85%. Thirteen species are found on degraded soils; 55.79% of the records are in a moderate situation, 37.76% light, 6.22% strong, and 0.21% extreme. Production, areas recorded 65.89% (of the total species), 30.81% in Conservation and 3.31% in restoration. The chi-square statistics test showed that the proportions of pine species in danger of extinction ─and in special protection─ are not the same in the different types of forest zoning, as well as in the different degrees of marginalization and soil degradation.</p> Ramiro Pérez-Miranda, Efraín Velasco-Bautista, Martín Enrique Romero-Sánchez, Jonathan Hernández-Ramos Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 07 Feb 2022 16:16:27 +0000 Effects of applying bovine manure and vermicompost on soil in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivation <p>The use of residues in agricultural production systems requires the use of different organic fertilizers to find application levels and possible combinations that produce quality crops. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of bovine manure (EB) and vermicompost (V) on soil, as well as the positive result in watermelon production. EB and V were applied in the same experimental site for two continuous cycles (2013-2014): EB at the levels of 0, 40, 60 and 80 Mg ha‑1, considering chemical fertilization for the Comarca Lagunera (FQ) 120-60 -00 and V 0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 Mg ha-1. Soil samples were taken at the beginning and end of each year at three depths taking into consideration the plant root area and moisture bulb 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm, evaluating organic matter (MO), pH, electrical conductivity (CE) and nitrates (NO3-). Total soluble solids (°Bx) and yield were evaluated in the fruit. The highest contents of MO (3.23% in 2013) and NO3- (41.4 kg ha-1 in 2014) were found at 0-15 cm with the interaction of 80 Mg ha-1 (EB) and 9.0 Mg ha-1 (V). CE increased to 6.6 dS m-1 from 0-15 cm, which after two application cycles implied the decrease in yield to 66.1% at the levels of 80 Mg ha-1 (EB) and 3.0 Mg ha -1 (V). In 2014 differences were found for yield and °Bx when the highest yield (29.2 Mg ha-1) was obtained at 80 Mg ha-1 EB level with 6.0 Mg ha-1 of V and for °Bx equal to 8.4 in the interaction of 60 Mg ha-1 of EB with 9.0 Mg ha-1 of vermicompost.</p> Tomás Juan Álvaro Cervantes-Vázquez, Pablo Preciado-Rangel, Manuel Fortis-Hernández, Ana Alejandra Valenzuela-García, José Luís García-Hernández, María Gabriela Cervantes-Vázquez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 07 Feb 2022 16:25:59 +0000 Performance of Huacle chili (Capsicum annuum L.) with implementation of compost and Azospirillum sp. in greenhouse <p>Mexico is considered the center of origin of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), which has two groups: common chili peppers (available throughout the country) and local chili peppers. Our research was carried out with the purpose of knowing the performance of the black, red and yellow Huacle chili genotypes (local chilies from Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, two of them used to make the black mole), as well as evaluating their performance and quality under greenhouse conditions with two production systems: organic and inorganic, with addition and without addition of rizo-bacteria Azospirillum sp. The sowing was performed in trays with 200 cavities, using peat moss as substrate. The substrates used were: sand + compost at a) 20% and b) 35% doses, and for the control, c) 100% of sand. The pots were placed in a double row of plants in trefoil arrangement with a space of 30 cm between plants and 80 cm between aisles. The experimental design used was completely randomized blocks with two repetitions and an experimental unit of 8 pots per genotype. The following variables: plant height, number of leaves per plant, green and dry weight of the aerial part of the plant, green and dry weight of the root, and number of fruits per plant showed highest values in the conventional production system based on a substrate with 100% of sand and inorganic nutrient solution. Dry yield and fruit quality (polar diameter, cavity width and pulp thickness) were higher in the organic production system based on compost and additions of Azospirillum. According to these results, we conclude that among the Huacle chili genotypes, the black genotype, adapted favorably to the organic production system with doses of 20% of compost and additions of Azospirillum.</p> Gaudencio Galeote-Cid, Pedro Cano-Ríos, José Apolinar Ramírez-Ibarra, Urbano Nava-Camberos, José Luis Reyes-Carrillo, María Gabriela Cervantes-Vázquez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 07 Feb 2022 16:31:02 +0000 Estimation and analysis of the carbon content in halophilic grasslands from the semi-arid central part of Mexico <p>Estimates of carbon storage and release depend mainly on vegetation type, land-use change, vegetation age and ecosystem type (closed or open). The carbon sequestered and stored has a positive environmental value, while its release to the atmosphere due to land-use change causes environmental damage by contributing to global atmospheric warming. Natural grasslands in Mexico occupy around 10% of the National territory, from which halophytes have been scarcely studied in terms of their contribution to the carbon cycle. Therefore, the objective of our study was to estimate the aboveground and belowground biomass and carbon content of vegetation type. We defined an effective sampling area of 70 ha in halophilic grasslands of the state of Puebla, and the quadrant method was proposed under a sampling design with nested fixed plots. To determine the carbon content, samples were collected in the field and transported to the laboratory to be dried at a constant temperature. The total carbon content calculated for halophilic grassland was 1.33 Mg ha-1, ranging from 0.55 to 2.6 Mg ha-1. The aboveground part was estimated at 0.49 Mg ha-1 in terms of biomass, while the belowground part was 2.34 Mg ha-1. The belowground biomass measured in the field showed a high correlation with total carbon (r = 0.87), hence, it could be considered as a viable option for carbon estimation using the proposed regression model.</p> Martín Enrique Romero-Sánchez, Efraín Velasco-Bautista, David Josué Meza-Juárez, Ramiro Pérez-Miranda Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 07 Feb 2022 16:37:37 +0000 Foliar biofortification with iron improves nutraceutical quality and antioxidant capacity in lettuce <p>Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for human health and its deficiency affects 1.2 billion people in the world. Agronomic biofortification can mitigate this deficiency as its application in crops improves the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and promotes their bioaccumulation. Our research aims to evaluate the effect of the foliar application of Fe (FeSO4) on the yield, biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and accumulation in lettuce. For this, five treatments were applied by foliar route: 0, 10, 20, 30 and 35 µM L‑1. At harvest, the nutraceutical quality and the accumulation of Fe in leaves were quantified, as well as the productivity of the lettuce plant. Biofortification with Fe positively modified the biosynthesis of phytochemical compounds and their concentration in lettuce leaves, without affecting the yield. Fe foliar spraying is an alternative to increase the biosynthesis of phytochemical compounds and increase the concentration of this element in lettuce.</p> Pablo Preciado-Rangel, Ana Alejandra Valenzuela-García , Laura Andrea Pérez-García, Uriel González-Salas , Sergio Arturo Ortiz-Díaz, Alain Buendía-García, Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 07 Feb 2022 16:46:25 +0000 Potential of essential oils in the control of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands and Fusarium sp. in vitro in Cinnamomum verum <p>Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.) is a species with few but significant health limitations, of which Phytophthora cinnamomi and Fusarium sp. are the most important ones that affect the root. Their control based on synthetic fungicides has favored resistance due to poor handling, so their control with essential oils is a viable alternative. The objective of this study is to determine the antifungal potential of thyme and clove – essential oils for the control of P. cinnamomi and Fusarium sp. isolated from Cinnamomum verum. Concentrations of 60, 120 and 300 μL L-1 were evaluated for both oils and phytopathogens. Data recorded on the mycelial growth rate of pathogens after incubation of Fusarium sp. at 25 ± 1 °C and 28 ± 1 °C had a significant difference in the concentrations tested. When clove essential oil was used in P. cinnamomi, the pathogen did not grow with the concentration of 300 μL L-1; with 120 μL L-1 growth rate was 0.06 mm per day, and with the concentration of 60 μL L-1, it reached a growth rate of 1.16 mm per day. With respect to Fusarium sp. mycelial growth was completely inhibited with doses of 120 and 300 μL L-1 of essential oils; with thyme oil a similar trend was observed at concentrations of 120 and 300 μL L-1 greatly inhibiting effects of the two pathogens. It is noteworthy that the doses of 300 μL L-1 of the two essential oils are able to inhibit in their entirety (P ≤ 0.05) growth of both pathogens. The use of thyme and clove essential oils can be an alternative in preventive control of cinnamon root diseases.</p> Petra Andrade-Hoyos, José Alberto Urrieta-Velázquez, Nadia Landero-Valenzuela, Homero Reyes-de la Cruz, Salvador Sampayo-Maldonado, Alfonso Luna-Cruz Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 07 Feb 2022 16:00:35 +0000 Biostimulant influence on morphological and agrochemical characters in banana (Musa AAA cv. Williams) <p>Some of the limitations for plant acclimatization in vitro in banana cultivation have been poor rooting and slow leaf development, which affect survival in the f ield under stress conditions after planting. The aim of this study is to compare seedling response of Musa cv. Williams treated with biostimulants and commercial de-stressing agents. Thirty days after inoculation, pseudostem diameter (cm), fresh plant mass (g),&nbsp;fresh root mass (g), root number, soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) index, edaphic ionic content and foliar content (pH, CE, NO3-, K+, Na+ and Ca2+) were evaluated. Preliminary results indicated, that StresSal® and (StresSal® + Equilibrium®) showed signif icantly greater pseudostem diameter. The highest radical fresh mass corresponded to (Inicium® + StresSal®). Root number was not signif icantly different. The SPAD index was elevated when StresSal® was applied alone or with Equilibrium®. The treatment (Inicium®+StresSal®) contributed to higher soil acidity. Conductivity (CE), K+ and Na+ were higher when Inicium® +&nbsp;Pro-&nbsp;Fulvic® were applied. As NO3- levels increased with Inicium®, Ca2+ ions decreased signif icantly in soil with Inicium® + StresSal®. Regarding foliar content, the highest pH corresponded to Inicium®, conductivity (CE) was higher with StresSal® and Inicium® + StresSal®, without difference with the control. An increase in NO3- was found with Inicium® + StresSal®. While Na+ and Ca2+ were signif icantly higher with Inicium® +&nbsp;Pro-Fulvic®.</p> Francisco Andrés Ugarte-Barco; Iván Armando Zhiñin-Huachun; Ricardo Hernández-Pérez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Wed, 25 May 2022 17:33:50 +0000 Omic technologies for the exploration of the soil biocrust <p>The "omics" technologies are novel tools that facilitate the study of microbial communities in different ecosystems, particularly the biological soil crust, also called biocrust. These technologies include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and metagenomics, which are used to analyze the diversity and functions carried out by microorganisms through the study of their biomolecules and metabolic pathways. Among the microorganisms that inhabit the biocrust are the cyanobacteria, which are a group of phototrophic bacteria responsible for important processes in the soil, such as the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, organic carbon, chlorophyll and phycobilin synthesis, as well as the production of exopolysaccharides to improve soil stability and fertility. Therefore, the objective of this review is to explore the diversity and role that these microbial communities play in the biocrust, particularly cyanobacteria, highlighting studies conducted using omics technologies. The knowledge generated in recent years through omics technologies has demonstrated the limited coverage of traditional molecular techniques, resulting in an underestimation of the real diversity of microbial communities. In addition, there has been an improvement in the understanding of the ecological processes developed by the microorganisms for the benefit of the biocrust, as well as the individual and collective functional capacities, which will serve as a baseline to propose important strategies to solve the problem of soil degradation.</p> Jaime Neftalí Márquez-Godoy, Román González-Escobedo Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Mon, 07 Feb 2022 17:14:45 +0000 Editorial Committee Rosa María López-Atilano Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Portada Interna Rosa María López-Atilano Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial sobre los artículos del Programa Mexicano del Carbono (PMC) <p>Se presenta el tercer número especial del Programa Mexicano del Carbono (PMC) en colaboración con la revista Terra Latinoamericana, orientado hacia la síntesis y modelación del carbono orgánico de los suelos y sus interacciones, en seguimiento al esfuerzo del PMC para el desarrollo de los elementos para el Segundo Reporte del Estado del Ciclo del Carbono en México. Los artículos incluidos en este número abordan diferentes perspectivas sobre el quehacer de avanzar en el conocimiento de la ciencia del suelo, con la finalidad de construir escenarios de medidas de intervención para mitigar y, adaptarse, al cambio climático a escala de país, desde lo local.</p> Fernando Paz-Pellat Copyright (c) Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000