REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA <h4><span style="float: right; color: #111111; font-family: 'helvetica neue',helvetica,arial,verdana,sans-serif; font-size: 14.4px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 18.72px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; display: inline ! important; background-color: #ffffff;">ISSN Electrónico 2395 - 8030.</span></h4> en-US (Dr. Bernardo Murillo Amador) (Cristopher Escalera de la Rosa) Tue, 31 Jan 2023 21:58:01 +0000 OJS 60 Influence of four concentrations of Steiner solution on nutrients in soil solution and productivity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) <p>The development and productivity of agricultural crops is directly related to the nutritional supply they receive. The hypothesis of this trial is that the concentration of ions measured in the soil solution allows evaluating the ef ficiency of the nutritional management and its ef fect on the crop – the concentration of ions are conditioned by the mineral supply and the ion exchange processes of the soil. Thus, the objective of the experiment is to measure the ef fect of the continuous application of four nutrient solution concentrations on the concentration of ions in the soil solution and the tomato crop response under greenhouse conditions. The trial was established in calcareous soil under a complete randomized block design with three replications, with indeterminate tomato plants. The treatments were four concentrations of a Steiner solution modified for tomato cultivation: (1) 50, (2) 75, (3) 100 and (4) 125% applied continuously by fertigation. In each treatment the soil solution was extracted, and the concentration of NO3-, K+ and Ca+2 ions, pH and electrical conductivity were measured for 18 weeks at the same time the crop response was measured. The concentration of the nutrient solution applied constantly to the tomato crop has a direct relationship with the availability of nutrients. The nutrient solution at 125% generated better growth, physiology, commercial quality and agronomic yield. Calcium was the only element that was detected in suf ficient levels in the soil solution from a concentration of 50% in the nutrient solution because of its high original availability in the soil.</p> Felicito Ausencio Díaz-Vázquez, Marcelino Cabrera-De la Fuente, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza, Valentín Robledo-Torres, Antonio Juárez-Maldonado, Álvaro García-León, Alberto Sandoval-Rangel Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Wed, 01 Mar 2023 05:21:02 +0000 Hydrological modeling with the SWAT model using dif ferent spatial distributions of soil type in the Mixteco River Basin <p>The Mixteco River basin is located in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico and comprises a total area of 6 559.20 km2, which shows a strong degradation of its natural resources, derived mainly from anthropic actions associated with poor management of its natural resources. Thus, the goal of this research is to evaluate the runof f behavior with the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in the Mixteco River basin using the soil spatial distribution from INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) and that obtained through technique of DSM (Digital Soil Mapping) technique. The modeling with INEGI (ModINEGI) corresponds to the soil map of the series II scale 1:250 000, and the modeling with DSM (ModDSM) was obtained from the environmental covariates. The SWAT model performance evaluation indicators during the calibration phase were R2 = 0.88 and NSE = 0.87 for ModDSM and R2&nbsp;= 0.85 and NSE = 0.85 for ModINEGI. However, during the validation period, the ModDSM results (R2 = 0.83 and NSE = 0.81) were better than those of ModINEGI (R2 = 0.83 and NSE = 0.61). Therefore, the results indicate that the spatial variation of the soil types obtained through the DSM technique in combination with the vegetation cover and the distribution of slopes at the basin level, allow the SWAT model to simulate the adequate surface runof f behavior.</p> Gerardo Colín-García, Enrique Palacios-Vélez, Demetrio Salvador Fernández-Reynoso, Adolfo López-Pérez, Héctor Flores-Magdaleno, Roberto Ascencio-Hernández, Enrique Inoscencio Canales-Islas Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Wed, 01 Mar 2023 05:09:40 +0000 Total Nitrogen in forage corn (Zea mays L.) estimated by satellite Sentinel-2 spectral indices <p>Nitrogen is the most important nutrient for forage crops because of its contribution in various biochemical reactions in the dif ferent phenological stages of the plant. The main aim of this study is to develop a multiple linear regression model to estimate total nitrogen (Nt) in corn plants using spectral indexes. The percentage of total nitrogen (Nt) was determined through three plant samplings in four experimental plots. The estimation model was obtained to process the Sentinel-2 satellite images according to the plant sampling dates; 13 spectral indexes were calculated and the association between nitrogen and the reflectance values was analyzed by the principal component analysis (ACP), correlation matrix, and dendrogram. The indexes with the highest relationship were MCARI / OSAVI, TCARI / OSAVI, MCARI / OSAVI RE and TCARI / OSAVI RE, explaining more than 50% of the variability of the proposed model and a MSE of 0.12. This study indicates that the estimation obtained from Sentinel-2 spectral indexes images has great potential to determine nitrogen in crops. However, for future research, Nt estimation models should be obtained for each phenological crop stage.</p> Magali J. López-Calderón, Juan Estrada-Ávalos, Aldo R. Martínez-Sifuentes, Ramón Trucíos-Caciano, Enrique Miguel-Valle Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Wed, 01 Mar 2023 05:02:47 +0000 Edaphological characterization in a blue agave (Agave tequilana Weber) cultivation in Tonaya and Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco, Mexico <p>The cultivation of blue agave has economic importance in the state of Jalisco as it generates employment, being the main economic source in several municipalities such as Tonaya and Tuxcacuesco. However, at present, the edaphological status of the soils is unknown and there is limited knowledge on the factors that regulate crop growth, which limits the determination of optimal crop yields. In this sense, the aim of our research was to evaluate the state of fertility of the soils cultivated with blue agave in plots with different characteristics (virgin and with several planting cycles), as well as to diagnose their status in the Tonaya and Tuxcacuesco municipalities in order to suggest more efficient management and nutrition practices. After analyses in the laboratory, the results show that the soils presented a mean pH value of 7.7, the mean concentration of organic matter was 2.19%. Overall deficiencies of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were found, thus, the soils were classified in the low‑to‑poor category in terms of nutritional content. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the plots evaluated, organic matter content and nutrients. We recommend the use of organic fertilizers and bean/corn/agave polyculture when agricultural and economic resources are sufficient.</p> Blanca Elizabeth Fregoso-Zamorano, Oscar Raúl Mancilla-Villa, Rubén Darío Guevara-Gutiérrez, Arturo Moreno-Hernández, Pedro Figueroa-Bautista, Álvaro Can-Chulim, Omar Hernández-Vargas, Elia Cruz-Crespo, Héctor Manuel Ortega-Escobar, Abdul Khalil Gardezi, Víctor Manuel Villalvazo-López Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 31 Jan 2023 21:54:54 +0000 Bibliometric study on biofertilizers in Mexico during the period 2015-2020 <p>We characterized the trend of scientific research on biofertilizers in Mexico based on publications of national and foreign scientific journals during the 2015-2020 period. Our study consisted on the interpretation of research articles (in English and Spanish) published in the following scientific databases: Ebsco, Elsevier, Springer, Scielo, Wiley and Redalyc, for the analysis of bibliometric indicators. Productivity was determined by year, authors, journals, institutions, and collaborations between countries and Mexican states, on issues related to the use of microorganisms by agricultural crop, biofertilizer brands, and econometric variables and indicators. Within the evaluated period, a total of 115 research articles were published, with an annual average of 19 research articles. The most productive year was 2020, with 40 research articles. The authors with the greatest leadership in publications were Arturo Díaz Franco Santacruz and Cid Aguilar Carpio. The scientific journals that published the greatest number of these research articles were Terra Latinoamericana and Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas. The main Mexican institutions performing the research were the National Institute of Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP) and the Postgraduate College. The United States of America is the country that collaborated the most with Mexican states (five states). Research in corn, varieties of chili, tomato, wheat and sorghum prevailed, being present in more than six research articles. Out of 33 brands of biofertilizers analyzed during the period, Micorriza INIFAP® was applied in more than 27% of the crops that used commercial biofertilizers. The most used microorganisms belonged to the genera Glomus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Azospirillum sp. Most of the research papers on biofertilizers are developed in the areas of agronomy, biology and environmental sciences, specifically in studies treating certain agricultural crop, while there are only few studies in the area of administration or marketing.</p> Andrés Eduardo Coutino-Puchuli, Maida Daylin Peña-Borrego, Zoe Tamar Infante-Jimenez Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 31 Jan 2023 21:41:13 +0000 El Population density and fertilization ef fect on water productivity and yield of corn hybrids in the Mexico Valley <p>Food insuf ficiency in corn and water and fertilizer crisis worldwide demand ef ficiency in the use of resources, increasing or conserving production. Thus, the objective of this research is to explore the response of four white maize hybrids released for valles Altos in two environments considering two population densities, two doses of fertilization and an unfertilized control group. Hybrids were evaluated in a factorial arrangement in Cuautitlan (FESC-UNAM) and Texcoco (CEVAMEX), Mexico State, at two planting densities (D1 = 75,000; D2 = 90,000 plants ha-1) with three fertilization treatments (F1 = 160-80-00, F2 = 120-40-00, F3 = 00-00-00). The completely randomized block design experiment was made up of the treatments and the combination of the factors 2×4×2×3 established in three repetitions. The means were compared with Tukey’s test (P &lt; 0.05). In FESC-UNAM with less total water, the result of grain yield and water productivity was 5.96 Mg ha-1 and 1.29&nbsp;kg&nbsp;m-3 in CEVAMEX 4.76 Mg ha-1 and 0.5 kg m-3; the Atziri Puma hybrid stood out with 6.52&nbsp;Mg&nbsp;ha-1 and 1.09 kg m-3. No significant ef fect of planting density was observed and D1 resulted with 5.32 Mg ha-1 and 0.9 kg m-3 versus D2 with 5.40 Mg ha-1 and 0.9&nbsp;kg m-3. In fertilization F1 was statistically higher with 5.64 Mg ha-1 and 0.94 kg&nbsp;m-3. Nevertheless, no dif ference was observed between F2 (5.24 Mg ha-1 and 0.88 kg&nbsp;m-3) and the control F3 (5.19 Mg ha-1 and 0.87 kg m-3), which showed the interaction of the environments with hybrids, of which Atziri Puma stood out at FESC-UNAM (7.3&nbsp;Mg&nbsp;ha-1 and 1.58 kg m-3). The FESC-UNAM site has productive potential under rainfed conditions with the Puma and INIFAP hybrids.</p> Homero Alonso-Sánchez, Margarita Tadeo-Robledo, Alejandro Espinosa-Calderón, Job Zaragoza-Esparza, Consuelo López-López, Benjamín Zamudio-González, Alan Monter-Santillán, Antonio Turrent-Fernández, Israel Arteaga-Escamilla, Karina Mora-García Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of tezontle particle diameter in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in aquaponics <p>Aquaponics is a complex food production system where fish and vegetables are produced simultaneously. Microorganisms, fish and plants participate in it; it is a complex system where conditions conducive to fish may not be suitable for microorganisms and plants. The diameter of the substrate particles for plant support and space for microorganism colonies can be a determining factor in aquaponics. This research investigates the particle size of tezontle, a porous red volcanic gravel that is used in Mexico for hydroponics and that here it is hypothesized that there is a particle size of this material that favors the growth and yield of plants in aquaponics.&nbsp;The model consisted of the use of 12 containers of 120 L as ponds for fish, and 12 tubs of 240 L for the substrate and a 120 L/min air pump to supply auxiliary oxygenation to the ponds. Three crops were established in each tub: tomato, cucumber, and lettuce. These cultures were transplanted in 3 tezontle diameters: particle diameter less than 1 cm (Æ&lt;1), greater than 5 cm (Æ&gt;5) and 50:50 % (v:v) mixture of both diameters (&lt;1:&gt;5), which constituted the substrate particle diameter treatments. There was no effect of substrate particle diameter on height, stem diameter, and SPAD readings in tomato, cucumber or lettuce plants. Regarding the yield and quality of tomato fruits (firmness, titratable acidity and ˚Brix) there were also no effects of the particle diameter of the substrate. There was also no effect of treatments on the morphological and quality variables of cucumber fruits. In the final fresh weight of lettuce, the treatment with substrate with diameter &lt;1 cm was statistically superior to diameter &gt;5 cm with averages of 89.87 g and 50.12 g respectively.&nbsp;Particle diameter does not affect the yield or quality of established crops, however, in practical terms the fine substrate &lt; 1 cm is recommended because it has greater moisture retention capacity and greater surface area for bacteria to colonize the environment, and promote higher plant growth and fruit quality in aquaponics. The fine substrate acts as a filter to retain suspended solids and prevents clogging of the system, and improves water quality and generates better living conditions for fish.</p> Andrés Valenzuela-Antelo, Manuel Sandoval-Villa, Juan J. Almaraz-Suárez, Gabriel Alcántar-González, Rafael Bórquez-López Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 31 Jan 2023 21:36:30 +0000 Digital soil mapping with regression-Kriging and data from remote sensing <p>The use of digital soil mapping allows obtaining quantitative information on soil distribution and functioning to provide alternatives for their management. The objective of this research is to perform the spatial prediction of soil properties through regression-kriging and serve as a basis for taking the necessary measures for a sustainable use of the resource. The study area is located in the wetland Cienaga de Chapala portion of Michoacán, Mexico. Soil sampling was systematic. In the laboratory, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, soluble cations calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium (Ca, K, Mg, Na), total nitrogen and pH were determined for each soil sample. The dependent variables were total nitrogen, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and pH. The independent variables are the Landsat 8 satellite bands. Regression-kriging was applied for spatial prediction. The experimental semivariogram fit with theoretical models was consistent for the four soil properties, because it was a systematic sampling design and the sample size was 297 points. The root mean square error of the electrical conductivity spatial prediction was 4 because it showed a coefficient of variation of 355. Soils are considered having from low to very low total nitrogen content (&lt;0.15%). At least 30% of the soils have salinity problems because their electrical conductivity is greater than 1.1 dS m-1. Organic carbon contents are considered medium to high (&gt;0.6%). The pH of the soils is moderately alkaline.</p> Francisco Estrada-Godoy, Gustavo Cruz-Cárdenas, Salvador Ochoa-Estrada, José Teodoro Silva Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 31 Jan 2023 20:33:05 +0000 Land use change by the NAICM construction in Texcoco, Mexico State <p>Mexico’s New International Airport megaproject was announced for the first time in 2001 and canceled in 2019; however, most of its construction progress took place during 2012-2018. With its announcement and cancellation there was a land use change and speculation regarding the land value. This study evaluates the impact that the airport construction and cancellation had over land use change in the municipality of Texcoco and neighboring municipalities in Mexico State, and the perception of key players concerning its effects. High-resolution images from the Sentinel-2 satellite were processed for the years 2016 to 2021. Geographic information systems were used to carry out a supervised classification with spectral indices and generate thematic maps of land use with four classes: bare soil, vegetated soil, urban land and water bodies. Interviews were applied to key players for a qualitative analysis of the appreciation of changes and effects derived from the airport project. Results show a higher growth rate of urban land from 2016 to 2017, mainly close to the airport building, replacing mostly bare soil. The airport caused discontent in the population by its environmental effects and social consequences, such as problems due to freight vehicles traffic. As a result of the airport cancellation, there is bare ground caused by mine exploitation and vehicular insecurity due to incomplete roads.</p> Arely Romero-Padilla, Martín Hernández-Juárez Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 31 Jan 2023 20:22:35 +0000 Editorial Committee 2023 Alejandro Rodríguez-Barba Copyright (c) Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Portada Interna 2023 Alejandro Rodríguez-Barba Copyright (c) Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000