REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA <h4><span style="float: right; color: #111111; font-family: 'helvetica neue',helvetica,arial,verdana,sans-serif; font-size: 14.4px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 18.72px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; display: inline ! important; background-color: #ffffff;">ISSN Electrónico 2395 - 8030.</span></h4> en-US (Dr. Bernardo Murillo Amador) (Lic. Cristopher Escalera de la Rosa) Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Biofortification of Verdín Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) With Chelate and Iron Sulfate <p style="font-weight: 400;"><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">Biofortification is a process that increases the nutrient content in plants’ edible parts. The objective was to determine the ef fect of iron chelate and iron sulfathe applied through foliar and edaphic methods on the mineral, nutritional, and bioactive compound content of the Verdin bean grain. Foliar doses of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mM of iron chelate and edaphic doses of 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g per plant of iron sulfate were applied, which generated 12 treatments that were evaluated in a randomized block design in 4×3 factorial arrangement where the first factor was the foliar doses, and the second factor was the edaphic doses. The content of iron, zinc, manganese, nickel, calcium and potassium, ash, proteins, fats, fiber, total phenols, flavonoid, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were determined in the grain. The individual applications of foliar and edaphic iron had significant ef fects (P ≤ 0.05), with the edaphic dose of 0.50 g presenting the greatest increases in iron (17.38%), nickel (20.69%), protein (10.93%), crude fiber (5.82%) and antioxidant capacity (2.84%) regarding doses without edaphic iron. The simultaneous application of edaphic and foliar iron showed statistical dif ferences (P ≤ 0.05), presenting the greatest increase in iron (75.91%), nickel (30.61%), ash (114.69%), protein (18.14%) and crude fiber (15.34%) with the 100 mM foliar - 0.50 g edaphic combination regarding to the combination without iron. For individual and simultaneous iron applications, it was observed that increasing the foliar and edaphic doses had antagonistic ef fects on the zinc and fat content. The application of iron can be beneficial to increase the mineral and nutritional content, and some bioactive compounds, but care must be taken to minimize the negative ef fects on other nutrients and properties of the grain.</span></p> Efraín de la Cruz Lázaro, Jean W. Félix, Esteban Sánchez-Chávez, Oscar Tosquy-Valle, Pablo Preciado-Rangel, Cesar Márquez-Quiroz Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Wed, 03 Apr 2024 22:57:32 +0000 Organic Fertilization and Number of Stems Af fect Quality and Bioactive Compounds in a Saladette Tomato Hybrid <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), due to its high demand and production, is the most important vegetable in the world, coupled with this, it is a functional food due to its antioxidant content. This crop is produced under a protected system with a synthetic inorganic fertilization source, which increases production costs. It is important to find an alternative source of fertilization and agronomic management that increases yields and improves the commercial and nutraceutical quality of this crop. The aim of the study was to verify the ef fect on the commercial quality and bioactive compounds of tomato, with doses of solarized bovine manure and the number of stems under a protected system, as well as evaluate the ef fect of organic fertilization on the soil. The research was carried out during the spring-summer 2021 cycle. Eight treatments (4×2 factorial) were obtained from the combination of four fertilization doses (0, 40, 60 Mg ha-1 of solarized manure and chemical fertilizer [Urea (46-0-0) and MAP (11-52-0)] with two numbers of stems (one and two stems) per plant. The commercial quality was superior organoleptically with the treatment of 60 Mg ha-1 and with a single stem being higher than 4.8 °Brix. The highest yield was obtained with the dose of 60 Mg ha-1 of bovine manure being statistically similar to chemical fertilization. The content of bioactive compounds (lycopene and antioxidant capacity) increased by 36% with the ef fect of the interaction of 60 Mg ha-1 of manure and a stem compared to the chemical treatment. The content of MO, NO3-, NH4+ and PO4-3 in the soil increased with the doses of manure, which reflects one of the benefits of using this fertilizer organic.</span></p> Tomás Juan Álvaro Cervantes-Vázquez, Manuel Fortis-Hernández, Pablo Preciado-Rangel, Cirilo Vázquez-Vázquez, María Gabriela Cervantes-Vázquez Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Fri, 29 Mar 2024 17:06:14 +0000 Biochemical Characterization of Endophytic Rhizobacteria with Biocontrol Activity Against Phytophthora palmivora and Lasiodiplodia theobromae <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">The use of rhizobacteria has the ability to colonize the root system, promote plant growth and biocontrol or suppress phytopathogenic fungi. The objective of this research was to select and analyze fluorescent rhizobacteria solubilizing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, producing lytic enzymes with antagonistic activity towards P. palmivora and L. theobromae. The bacteria were isolated from root and leaf tissue of endemic CCN-51 cacao cultivars from the provinces of Los Ríos, Santa Elena and Esmeralda. Characterization of antagonistic activity was based on the selection of proteolytic activity, siderophore production and fluorescent pigmentation under ultra violet light. In addition, antagonistic activity was performed using cell extracts. Nine bacterial strains (BF 567, FZ 9-7, LH 5-10, MH 4-20, MN 5-20, MN 5-19, AC3, PV-25) with protease production, siderophore production and fluorescence emission were selected. The ability of the bacteria to solubilize complex minerals (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) was analyzed and their solubilization ef ficiency varied, ranging from 50 to 100 %. The antagonistic factor of cell supernatants from FZ 9-7, BF 567 and PV-25 inhibited mycelial growth toward P. palmivora and L. theobromae by 40, 60 and 85%, respectively. The use of rhizobacteria could be used as an alternative biofertilizer to chemical fertilizers and biological control of phytopathogenic soil fungi through their volatile emissions.</span></p> Hayron Fabricio Canchignia-Martínez, Luis Fernando Vera-Benites, Dayanara Nicolle Tapia-Quintana, Ángel Virgilio Cedeño-Moreira, Erick García-Intriago, Cristhian John Macías- Holguín Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Fri, 29 Mar 2024 17:01:07 +0000 Evaluation of the Arsenic Extraction Capacity of Ricinus communis L. <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a plant that has dif ferent benefits, such as the production of biodiesel and soil bioremediation. Due to the above, the castor plant’s ability to extract arsenic (As) was evaluated. For this, a randomized block experimental design with four repetitions was carried out. The evaluated treatments consisted of two types of biosolids (oxidation lagoon biosolids (BLO) and activated sludge biosolids (BLA) and four doses of As (0, 25, 50, 100 mg kg-1), under greenhouse conditions. As concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). From the quantification of As, the translocation factor (TF) and the bioaccumulation factor (FB) were estimated. The total nitrogen (N) content was quantified by the combustion method. Phosphorus (P) was analyzed by colorimetry using the metavanadate method, and the content of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) was quantified by atomic absorption. For percentage of oil The Soxhlet method was used in the seed. The plant height and the dry weight of biomass did not vary due to the treatment ef fect (P ≤ 0.05). The Translocation Factor (TF) and the Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) registered ranges of 0.20 - 0.63 and 0.28 - 0.75, respectively. The applied doses of As did not af fect the biomass and nutrient absorption in the castor plant, which indicates that this plant species is tolerant to toxicity with productive potential in soils contaminated with this element, in concentrations up to 100 mg kg-1.</span></p> Sandra Patricia Maciel-Torres, María del Rosario Jacobo-Salcedo, Uriel Figueroa-Viramontes, Aurelio Pedroza-Sandoval, Ricardo Trejo-Calzada, Tomas Rivas-García Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Thu, 21 Mar 2024 18:53:28 +0000 Methodological Analysis of Soil Respiration: An Approach to Interpretation <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">A methodology is proposed for the interpretation of gas emissions that come from the soil based on the integration of the primary actors in the production systems and members of the ecosystems. The methodology presents data in units that are easy to understand by people outside the study of gas emissions in different ecosystems and production systems, and optimizes the calculation of small and medium scale predictions through estimation with a high degree of ratio and mathematical adjustment. From the use of the ideal gas equation, it was possible to develop the methodology to obtain a conversion factor taking into account variables such as the pressure and temperature of the site where the gas quantification experiment is being carried out. With the aforementioned, it is easier to obtain the constant of the molar volume of the container used and data transformation to ensure compliance with basic statistical parameters such as normality, variance similar to zero, and confidence intervals with less deviation. The present methodological development represents a tool for the generation of data at the laboratory and plot level with mathematical support that facilitates the execution of mathematical models in comparison with other methodologies.</span></p> Víctor Manuel Montoya-Jasso, Víctor Manuel Ordaz-Chaparro, Gerardo Sergio Benedicto-Valdés, Alejandrina Ruiz-Bello, Jesús Manuel Arreola-Tostado Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Wed, 03 Apr 2024 22:49:58 +0000 Glomeromycotina Guild Spore Abundance Correlates with Soil Organic Carbon in Homegardens and Seasonal Forests in Yucatan, Mexico <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a key indicator of soil health. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been shown to increase SOC and respond to SOC content, which in turn, is directly related to land use. We investigated the relationships between land use and Glomeromycotina AMF spore abundance of two AMF functional guilds, rhizophilic (having high root internal AMF hyphal length) and edaphophilic (with high external soil hyphal length) to SOC content in agroforestry systems (AS) and seasonal forest (SF) of Tzucacab, Yucatan, Mexico. Our results indicate greater SOC values in SF than AS of the same age with a trend of increasing SOC with system age. Rhizophilic spore abundance correlated with SOC content, showing dif ferences among land uses and system ages but not between seasons. No relationship was observed between edaphophilic spore abundance to SOC. Thus, we suggest that Glomeromicotyna spore abundance (measured at any time of the year) of rhizophilic fungi could be a good indicator of SOC and, a tool to monitor soil health due to land use changes.</span></p> Sergio Manrique-Caamal, Héctor Estrada-Medina, Juan J. Jiménez-Osornio, Michael F. Allen, Edith B. Allen, Roberto C. Barrientos-Medina, Oscar O. Álvarez-Rivera Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Fri, 29 Mar 2024 16:51:21 +0000 Ef fect of a Marine Bacterium and Vermicompost on Antioxidant Properties and Fruit Quality of Solanum lycopersicum L. <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">The present study aimed to evaluate caporal hybrid tomatoes’ antioxidant capacity and fruit quality under greenhouse conditions when applying a combination of a marine bacteria (Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) and dif ferent doses of vermicompost. A random block design was used, with 12 treatments: Inorganic fertilized (IF, control treatment), S. rhizophila (Sr), 60, 150, and 300 g of vermicompost (V), and the combination of Sr+V (Sr+V60, Sr+V150, and Sr+V300), with 20 repetitions each. Plant height, stem diameter, number of flowers, number of fruits, colony-forming units (CFU), polar and equatorial diameter of the fruit, fruit firmness, titratable acidity, total soluble solids (TSS), lycopene, vitamin C, fruit weight and yield per plant were evaluated. These were analysed with the Statistical Package and the Tukey mean test with a significance level of 0.05%. The analysis showed significant dif ferences for all the variables evaluated with Sr+V300 as the best treatment. It is concluded that the use of bacterium isolated from marine environments in combination with vermicompost favors the antioxidant contents and fruit yield being an alternative use in this vegetable.</span></p> Liliana Lara-Capistrán, Ana G. Reyes, Bernardo Murillo-Amador, Elia Nora Aquino-Bolaño, Luis Hernández-Adame, Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Fri, 29 Mar 2024 16:43:31 +0000 Yield and Development of Citrullus lanatus Thunb., with Plastic Mulch and Vermicompost as a Nutritional Source <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">In dif ferent trials have shown that the use of both vermicompost (VC) and plastic mulch has favored the yield and productivity of a large number of crops. The purpose of our study was to compare synthetic fertilization vs the incorporation of VC on the development of triploid watermelon with plastic mulch in the spring-summer 2019 agricultural cycle at the experimental field of the Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro. The treatments evaluated, each with three repetitions, were: exploratory application of VC, at a rate of 30 and 60 Mg ha-1, and as a control, the regional recommendation 240-120-00 ha-1 (N-P-K). The sowing was carried out in planting beds of 2 × 8 m (width and length, respectively) covered with black plastic. The sowing of the triploid watermelon seeds of the Crunchy Red variety, was carried out in Styrofoam trays with 200 cavities filled with Peat Moss. When the seedlings had two to three true leaves, they were transplanted 1.0 m apart on planting beds of 2 × 8 m (width and length, respectively) covered with black plastic. For the supply of water, drip irrigation was used. To evaluate the ef fect of the treatments, a completely randomized experimental design was used, the DMS0.05 test was applied for comparisons of the means. Due to the ef fect of the treatments evaluated, five of the variables studied: equatorial and polar diameters, pulp thickness, soluble solids and fruit weight presented highly significant dif ferences, while yield registered a significant dif ference. The highest yield of 29 932 Mg ha-1 was recorded with the incorporation of 60 Mg ha-1 of VC confirming that this natural fertilizer was able to satisfy the nutritional needs of triploid watermelon without synthetic fertilization.</span></p> Alejandro Moreno-Reséndez, José Luis Reyes-Carrillo, Rubén López-Salazar, Armando Espinoza-Banda, Selenne Yuridia Márquez-Guerrero Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Fri, 29 Mar 2024 16:33:58 +0000 Response of Two Varieties of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to Silicon and Chlorine Applied in Shade Houses <p>Plant growth, higher yield and fruit quality are positive ef fects due to the absorption of silicon (Si) and chlorine (Cl), which contributes to mitigating stress due to biotic or abiotic factors and recovering plant growth. The objective of this research was to know what the ef fect of Si or Cl does on morphometric variables, production quality and yield of the cucumber crop. A complete randomized block design was applied, four repetitions and ten treatments in seedlings: six doses of 20, 30 and 50 mg L-1 of Si or Cl, three doses with the volume:volume (v:v) ratio of 20 :20, 30:30 and 50:50 mg L-1 Si:Cl, plus the control. In plants transplanted in soil, already with five true leaves, there were nine treatments: six doses of 20, 30 and 50 mg L-1 of Si or Cl, two with the v:v ratio of 20:20 and 30:30 mg L-1 Si:Cl, and the witness. In pickle cucumber seedlings, the high dose of Cl was more ef fective in increasing leaf greenness and stem length; leaf size was greater in seedlings with the high dose of Si; while low doses of Cl or Si caused greater dry weight of roots. In the ˈModanˈ cultivar, the greenness did not change, the stem length was greater with the intermediate dose of Si, while the size of leaves was better expressed in plants with the lowest dose of Si. So perhaps the greater number of roots, the chlorophyll content and the leaf area influenced the higher yield to be expressed where Si or Cl was fertilized, as well as the firmness, TSS and °Brix of the fruits to improve.</p> Luz Llarely Cázarez-Flores, Leopoldo Partida-Ruvalcaba, Teresa de Jesús Velázquez-Alcaraz, Norma Delia Zazueta-Torres, Moisés Gilberto Yáñez-Juárez, Azareel Angulo-Castro, Tomás Díaz-Valdés Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Thu, 29 Feb 2024 18:38:57 +0000 Impact of vermicompost on residual and dissipation of chlorpyrifos in an entisol soil of semi-arid climate and variation in its fertility <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">Excessive use of chlorpyrifos af fects the quality of agricultural soils causing negative ef fects on the safety of harvested food. The behavior of chlorpyrifos residues depends on soil properties, especially organic matter. Our aim in this research was to determine the ef fect of the application of vermicompost on the residual and dissipation of chlorpyrifos in an entisol soil of semi-arid climate with variations in its edaphic fertility. Four treatments were studied. T1: 7.5% vermicompost (V) and 92.5% soil (S); T2: 5% V and 95% S; T3: 2.5% V and 97.5% S; T4: 0% V and 100% S. The treatments were subjected to a seven-day incubation period. Subsequently, a dose of chlorpyrifos of 1.5 mg kg-1 as active ingredient was applied once for each treatment. A completely randomized design was used with three replicates for each treatment, forming 12 experimental units. The analytical determination of chlorpyrifos was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The evaluations were carried out 1.7, 14, 28, 42, 70 and 98 days af ter the application of chlorpyrifos. The results showed that the incorporation of vermicompost to the soil at increasing levels promoted a decrease in the residual concentration of chlorpyrifos and facilitated its gradual dissipation. The chlorpyrifos dissipation curves correspond to a first order logarithmic equation where the ef fects of the treatments caused greater dissipation of chlorpyrifos as the evaluation period elapsed. At 98 days of evaluation, T1 registered lower residuality (0.786 m kg-1), higher daily dissipation rate (0.008) and lower half-life of chlorpyrifos (86.64 days). At the end of the research period, edaphic levels of P, K, EC and CEC increased while OM, N and pH decreased af ter vermicompost application.</span></p> Oscar Tito-Nova, Sara Choqueneira-Ccasa, Guido Sarmiento-Sarmiento, Luis Lipa-Mamani Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Thu, 29 Feb 2024 17:37:55 +0000 Estimation of Biophysical Variables in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) using Spectral Information and Simple Linear Regression Models <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">The fraction of vegetation cover (FVC) and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) are biophysical variables closely related to the evapotranspiration rate of crops and their biomass production. Despite their importance, they are usually not measured directly due to their time-consuming and costly nature; however, they can be estimated on a large scale and near-real-time using spectral information captured in satellite images, although this requires prior validation at the field level. Simple linear regression models were developed and validated using 13 vegetation indices (VI) related to LAI and FCV in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Three spectral information sources were used: (i) reflectance to derive the VI; (ii) digital photographs processed with the Canopeo application to estimate FVC; and (iii) direct LAI measurements using a ceptometer. Six field samples were taken between March and June, 2020 in four alfalfa plots located in Palmar de Bravo, Puebla, Mexico. To evaluate each VI, the determination coef ficient (R2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) were used. We found that the most suitable VI for estimating FVC was the VIgreen (Green Vegetation Index, R2 =0.987 and RMSE = 0.093). For the LAI, the VI that performed best was the NDVI (Normalized Dif ference Vegetation Index, R2 = 0.935 and RMSE = 0.746). The results showed the suitability and practical utility of spectral information for estimating biophysical variables in alfalfa cultivation and their monitoring.</span></p> Sergio Antonio Varela-de Gante, Martín A. Bolaños-González, José Manuel Salvador-Castillo, Juan Manuel Barrios-Díaz, Guillermo Jesuita Pérez-Marroquín Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Thu, 29 Feb 2024 17:29:10 +0000 Evaluation of Soil Quality in Municipalities Belonging to the Central Depression of Chiapas, Mexico <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">The state of Chiapas presents degradation processes of dif ferent kinds, as a consequence of the current established agricultural model. It is estimated that, in the near future, the surface of the state of Chiapas will present more than 55% degradation, generating changes in the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, af fecting the quality of life of human beings, mainly due to scarcity of food. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality of the soils in three municipalities of the central depression of Chiapas, Mexico. The analysis were interpreted taking NOM-021-SEMARNAT-2000 as a reference and were classified according to the world reference base (WRB), version 2014. For the evaluation of soil quality, the sustainable use of land subindex (SUSS). 144 soil samples corresponding to 21 profiles were analyzed. Of the 21 profiles studied, 17 present poor soil qualities, two a sensitive quality, one acceptable quality and one with good quality. Only two soil groups presented good fertility and are classified as Vertisols and Phaeozems, which present good quality and capacity to maintain sustainable agricultural production in this region.</span></p> Griseida Cruz-Roblero, Silvia Guadalupe Ramos-Hernández, David Jesús Palma-López Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Thu, 29 Feb 2024 17:17:27 +0000 Colonization Patterns by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Dark Septate Endophytes in a Forest Ecosystem of the Municipality of Isidro Fabela, State of Mexico <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSEF) have such an influence on plant development and on the edaphological characteristics and nutrients available in the soil that changes in these communities can drive modifications in the biotic and abiotic variables of an ecosystem, demonstrating the synergetic between species. Given its relevance, the objective of this work was to determine the status of colonization in the roots of three representative herbaceous species of the understory of a community of Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham.) and Pinus harwegii (Lindl), and to contrast the coexistence of colonizers in three conservation-disturbance scenarios that exemplify the vulnerability situations of a forest ecosystem. A tripartite AMF-HESO-plant interaction is reported by the occurrence of coenocytic hyphae, vesicles, septate hyphae, moniliform cells, and sclerotia. The values of arbuscular mycorrhization exceed 50% and are higher than those found for endophytes (15.7-64.5%). The colonization of both types of fungi, such as AMF sporulation (687 spores 50 g-1 soil in the reforested area), seems to be related to the microclimatic conditions resulting from soil use. The edaphological variables that allow inferring the colonization behavior correspond mainly to available phosphorus, calcium, pH, organic matter, and cation exchange capacity. It is concluded that soil properties, its use, and the type of plants are determinant in the establishment of fungal communities. However, more studies on HESO-plant interaction are needed.</span></p> Alejandra García-Mares, Iván Pável Moreno-Espíndola, Santos Carballar-Hernández, José Luis Gama-Flores, María Jesús Ferrara-Guerrero Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Thu, 29 Feb 2024 17:13:16 +0000 Apple Tree Rootstocks [Malus sylvestris (L.) mill. Domestic var (Borkh) Mansf.] Under Water Stress <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">In recent decades, water scarcity has increased considerably in Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua – the most important apple-growing region of Mexico. Thus, the objective of this research is focused on evaluating growth and development responses in apple rootstocks graf ted with Golden Delicious subjected to four drought cycles, comparing them with the continuous irrigation treatment. Ten rootstocks were evaluated (B.9, M.9Nic29, G.41, G.202, G.890, G.210, G.30, M.7, MM.111 and MM.109) used in the commercial apple orchards in the area, where all the rootstocks were obtained during the 2020 growing season. The planting was carried out in 20-L pots in March 2020 and a substrate composed of compost, soil and sand was used in a ratio of 1:1:1. The recorded variables measured were moisture percentage in the soil, the leading branch growth, leaf water potential, total biomass, and ef ficient water use. The rootstocks B.9 and M.9 Nic29 showed good results in most of the variables studied. Rootstocks with good recovery of leaf water potential af ter recovery irrigation were found. These rootstocks were; B.9, M.9Nic29, MM.111 and G.210. The total biomass was statistically the same in G.30, G.41, MM.111, MM.109, G.202 and B.9. In conclusion, rootstocks tolerate a certain degree of drought and can contribute to improving water use, highlighting B.9.</span></p> Mariela Rascón-Castillo, Carlos Alberto Lozano-Martínez, Juan Luis Jacobo-Cuellar, Maria Noemi Frias-Moreno, Oscar Cruz-Álvarez, Ofélia Adriana Hernández-Rodríguez, Damaris Leopoldina Ojeda-Barrios, Rafael Ángel Parra-Quezada Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Thu, 01 Feb 2024 04:34:53 +0000 Ef fect of Biostimulants on Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Growth, Physiology and Biochemical Quality Subjected to Water Stress <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">Currently, agricultural activity is constantly threatened by the ef fects of climate change and radical expression of environmental factors as irregular rainfall distribution responsible for water availability and deficit. These factors generate water stress in productive systems, whose negative ef fect is reflected on morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects of vegetative growth. The use of biostimulants arises as a strategy to counteract this impact, improving crop ef ficiency in the use of resources and generating responses, as metabolite production, among other substances that mitigate the ef fects of oxidative stress. In this context, waxes, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), salicylic acid (SA) and ALGAENZIMSMR were used on raspberry plants subjected to moderate water stress (-0. 8 MPa) to evaluate the fruit response in aspects of vegetative growth, physiological and biochemical quality. For the establishment, a completely randomized design was used with 5 treatments: Green Cover as 5 mL L-1, H2O2 10-4 M, salicylic acid 0.27 mM, ALGAENZIMSMR 7.5 mL L-1 and the control with 50% recovery of the transpired volume as well as water potential similar to the rest of plants and 4 replicates. The results showed that waxes, SA and algal extract increased the photosynthetic rate; the four treatments increased root length; waxes increased root height; and H2O2 increased root biomass. Compared to the control, higher levels of vitamin C and anthocyanins were produced in fruits – a very important aspect due to the functionality of these compounds in human health. Therefore, the use of these biostimulants are a very useful tool for crop management in environments with water restriction.</span></p> Gerardo Anastacio-Angel, José Antonio González-Fuentes, Alejandro Zermeño-González, Armando Robledo-Olivo, Eduardo Alberto Lara-Reimers, Fidel Maximiano Peña-Ramos Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Richness and Abundance of Soil Seed Bank in Dif ferent Agroecosystems in Central Veracruz, Mexico <p>The soil seed bank is key to plant succession. However, agricultural activities have had a great impact on the vegetation and its composition. The aim was to determine the soil seed bank in dif ferent grazing agroecosystems in the central part of Veracruz state, Mexico. Richness, abundance, diversity, equity, dominance and similarity of the species were quantified and compared among four agroecosystems (silvopastoral, pasture-trees, traditional grazing, and Acahual or secondary vegetation) in Veracruz, Mexico during the year 2017. Samples were collected. of soil at two depths (0-5, &gt; 5-10 cm). A statistical dif ference was found in the seed bank (P &lt; 0.05) in silvopastoral at both depths, 0-5 (H’ = 2.13) and 5-10 (H’ = 1.86). Equity and dominance were higher for this agroecosystem (0.86) and for Acahual (0.58) with statistical dif ferences (P &lt; 0.05). No statistical dif ferences were found at sites between depths (P &gt; 0.05). Similarity was greater than 50% at all sites and increased with soil depth. The evidence suggests that the greatest diversity of the seed bank was in silvopastoral from 0 to 5 cm deep. The seed bank has potential for the restoration of vegetation, mainly herbaceous, and can promote the development of shrubs and trees, despite the management of cattle ranching sites.</p> Arturo Pérez-Vázquez, Carlos Nahin Castro-Jose, Ana Lid del Angel-Pérez, Mónica de la Cruz Vargas-Mendoza Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Thu, 01 Feb 2024 04:16:02 +0000 Impact of Humic Acids and Chitosan on the Ionic Composition of the Soil Solution and the Nutritional Content of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) Under Greenhouse <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">Soil solution (SS) constitutes the volume from which plant roots extract dissolved nutrients. Despite its importance, the impact of its composition due to the application of organic amendments has been relatively little studied. The objective of this research was to study the impact of humic acids (HA) and chitosan (Cs) on the concentration of minerals in the SS, as well as their ef fect on the yield of the cabbage crop (Brassica oleracea L.). Under greenhouse conditions with calcareous soil, two doses of HA were applied (200 and 500 kg ha-1), as well as 50 and 150 kg ha-1 of Cs in a targeted manner. From the SS, 22 samples were taken non-destructively from the root zone once a week. The results of mineral content in the soil solution and mineral content on the biomass did not present significant dierences, however, it was noted that the Cs50 treatment stimulated 41% higher plant biomass than the control (P ≤ 0.5, Tukey). It is concluded that Cs and HA do not significantly impact the ionic content of the SS or the mineral content of the biomass, although they do stimulate the yield. </span></p> Jorge Enrique Canales-Almendares, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza, Hortensia Ortega-Ortiz, Antonio Juárez-Maldonado, Nazario Francisco-Francisco Copyright (c) 2024 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Thu, 01 Feb 2024 04:41:40 +0000 Editorial Committee 2024 Alejandro Rodríguez-Barba Copyright (c) Tue, 30 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000